Material counting

Sidenote: Material counting is done in Rustic Alpha 1, 2 and 3, up to and including Alpha 3.0.4. These versions have a separate material count, which is later combined with the Piece Square Tables (PSQT, see next chapter). Rustic Alpha 3.0.5, as a preparation for version 4, unified the material count into the PSQT's. The reason for this is that tuning the evaluation function becomes easier and somewhat faster. It does not change anything with regard to the playing strength of the engine or the implementation of the PSQT's. This unification just means that, for example, the Piece Square Table for the queen will start at 900, instead of at 0. I'm leaving this chapter in the book for people who want to first implement material counting and then PSQT's separately to understand exactly how these mechanics work. The PSQT-chapter will also have a side note mentioning this.


Counting the material on the board is the most basic way of evaluating a chess position. You can just compare material: "I have one bishop and 2 knights, while my opponent has two bishops and one knight. So light pieces are equal. We both have a queen, and one rook, so that is equal as well. He has four pawns and I have five... so in the end, I'm one pawn up." That's it, nothing more to it.

Somewhat more complicated is the relationships between pieces if material is not equally balanced. How much pawns is one knight worth? How much bishops + pawns is a rook worth? What do I need to get back for giving up my queen (if it's not the queen of the opponent)? Humans often use this:

  • Queen: 9 points
  • Rook: 5 points
  • Bishop: 3 points
  • Knights: 3 points
  • Pawn: 1 points

So a knight is worth 3 pawns. A Rook is worth one bishop and two pawns. Two rooks are worth slightly more than a queen. Three light pieces are exactly worth a queen too. A queen is also equivalent to a rook + knight + pawn, and so on.

Some people prefer the values below. For example, Max Euwe (World Champion 1935-1937), who was a well-known chess educator in the Netherlands in the middle part of the 20th century:

  • Queen: 9.5 points
  • Rook: 4.5 points
  • Bishop: 3 points
  • Knights: 3 points
  • Pawn: 1 points

So a bishop and knight are still worth three pawns, but Euwe states that a rook cannot be exactly compensated. A knight + pawn is just a tiny bit too little, while a knight + two pawns is a tiny bit too much. Two rooks fall just short of a queen, but two rooks + pawn is a bit more than one queen. Three light pieces fall just short of the queen, but one extra pawn is half a pawn more.

Things like this can determine the playing style of both chess players and chess engines. If a chess engine is programmed in such a way that three light pieces are exactly one queen it may give up its queen to win three light pieces, everything else being equal. Another engine, assuming the queen is half a pawn more than three light pieces, will not make that trade.

Which is the best setup? It completely depends on your playing style. I've tested both setups with Rustic Alpha 1 and 2, and with my own hand-written Piece Square Tables (PSQT's), the first setup is a little stronger. Versions of Rustic with the first setup are about 30-40 Elo stronger than the ones with the second setup. If I had written my PST's differently, it could have been the other way around, so in your engine, try both.

For more information about PSQT's, see the next chapter. Also take into account that later, the material values will be worked directly into the PSQT's as mentioned in the sidenote above, and these will then be automatically tuned. This is going to be discussed in the "Tapering and Tuning" chapter.


Implementation difficulty of counting the material balance is in the easy to lower medium range. We will be discussing two methods of calculating the material balance: counting from scratch, and keeping the value updated incrementally. (Rustic uses the second approach, because it is MUCH faster. The same goes for PSQT's which can be counted in the same two ways.)

Value per piece type

Rustic has a struct holding all the piece types in its Board definitions:

pub struct Pieces;
impl Pieces {
    pub const KING: Piece = 0;
    pub const QUEEN: Piece = 1;
    pub const ROOK: Piece = 2;
    pub const BISHOP: Piece = 3;
    pub const KNIGHT: Piece = 4;
    pub const PAWN: Piece = 5;
    pub const NONE: Piece = 6;

Using this, we can create an array which assigns a numerical value to each piece. These are implementations of the values from above:

pub const PIECE_VALUES: [u16; 6] = [0, 900, 500, 300, 300, 100];
// --- or this one ---
pub const PIECE_VALUES: [u16; 6] = [0, 950, 450, 300, 300, 100];

So, this table can be indexed by:

let v = PIECE_VALUES[Pieces::Queen]; // v = 900 here.
let v = PIECE_VALUES[Pieces::Pawn]; // v = 100 here.

We need to take two things into account in the evaluation:

First, the evaluation is MUCH faster if we only use integers. If at all possible, we will never use floating point numbers while calculating anything. (Except, in the very last step before outputting the result.) This is the reason why we have multiplied all the values by one hundred. This gives the evaluation a way to think in terms of "parts of a pawn", by using values such as 50 or 10, instead of 0.5 or 0.1.

Second, in most chess engines, it turns out to be better to have the bishop be worth slightly more than the knight, and that a light piece is a bit better to have than three pawns. This causes the engine to not trade a bishop for a knight (all else being equal), and it'll keep the light piece instead of trading it for three pawns.

Again, don't fret too much about these values because in later stages of engine development, they will be merged with the Piece-Square Tables and automatically tuned.

Counting vs. Updating

Counting from scratch

There are two ways you could know the material balance when evaluating the position: you can count the material at that point, or you update the value incrementally.

Counting the material balance at the point where you need to know it is very straightforward. Below is a piece of pseudo-code. This doesn't come from Rustic (and it isn't even Rust), because the engine doesn't do it this way. This implementation is given for completeness' sake, because the difference of "counting vs. updating" will crop up again later, when implementing the PST's. We can then skip this example.

Here's the pseudo-code to count the material balance for use in the evaluation function:

function count_material(position) {
    let value_white = 0;
    let value_black = 0;

    // For example, piece-type == knight
    for each piece_type in all_piece_types {
        for each piece in piece_type {
            if piece is a white piece {
                value_white += PIECE_VALUES[piece];
            } else {
                value_black += PIECE_VALUES[piece];

    let balance = value_white - value_black;
    return balance;

That is basically it. Run through all the pieces, and add the piece's value to either the white or black counter. Then subtract black from white, and you have the balance: if positive, white is ahead, if negative, black is ahead. If material balance is exactly equal, then "balance" will obviously be zero.

Incrementally updating

Counting from scratch works perfectly well, but it is slow: each time the engine evaluates a position, it has to calculate the material balance all over again. At most it only has to add 2x 16 values and then subtract the results, but think about the fact that this has to be done millions and millions of times a second during a search run.

When playing a game of chess yourself, you're not going to re-count the pieces from scratch each time the position changes. At the beginning of the game you know the material balance is equal. When you move a piece and there is an exchange, you can then adjust the material balance to the new situation.

This is exactly what Rustic does, and it's called an incremental update. It uses this technique in more situations, because it saves lots of time. To achieve this, Rustic keeps the material in a game state struct, along with some other things it needs to know throughout the game:

pub struct GameState {
    pub active_color: u8,
    pub castling: u8,
    pub halfmove_clock: u8,
    pub en_passant: Option<u8>,
    pub fullmove_number: u16,
    pub zobrist_key: u64,
    pub material: [u16; Sides::BOTH],
    pub psqt: [i16; Sides::BOTH],
    pub next_move: Move,

The "material" member keeps the total material value for each side throughout the game. It is initialized in the Board class, when the engine starts:

fn init(&mut self) {
    // ...

    let material = material::count(&self);
    self.game_state.material[Sides::WHITE] = material.0;
    self.game_state.material[Sides::BLACK] = material.1;

    // ...

The function counting the material is an implementation of the pseudo-code given before, in Rust:

pub fn count(board: &Board) -> (u16, u16) {
    // Material values for white and black.
    let mut white_material: u16 = 0;
    let mut black_material: u16 = 0;

    // Make a shorthand for the white and black piece bitboards
    let bb_w = board.bb_pieces[Sides::WHITE];
    let bb_b = board.bb_pieces[Sides::BLACK];

    // Iterate over white and black bitboards by piece_type
    for (piece_type, (w, b)) in bb_w.iter().zip(bb_b.iter()).enumerate() {
        // Get white and black pieces of the type "piece"
        let mut white_pieces = *w;
        let mut black_pieces = *b;

        // Add material values for white (for each piece of this piece type)
        while white_pieces > 0 {
            white_material += PIECE_VALUES[piece_type];
            bits::next(&mut white_pieces);

        // Add material values for black (for each piece of this piece type)
        while black_pieces > 0 {
            black_material += PIECE_VALUES[piece_type];
            bits::next(&mut black_pieces);

    // Return values
    (white_material, black_material)

(In later versions of Rustic the 'material' member in the GameState struct and this function will not be there, because the material values have been merged with the PSQT's.)

After starting, the engine will know the total material value for both white and black. As soon as a piece is removed from a square (by capture, or by moving it) or put down on a square the material value is updated:

pub fn remove_piece(&mut self, side: Side, piece: Piece, square: Square) {
    // ...
    self.game_state.material[side] -= PIECE_VALUES[piece];
    // ...

pub fn put_piece(&mut self, side: Side, piece: Piece, square: Square) {
    // ...
    self.game_state.material[side] += PIECE_VALUES[piece];
    // ...

Note that this will even take promotions into account: remove a pawn from the 7th rank and thus subtract the pawn value from the material count, and then put a queen down, adding the queen value back to the material count.

Obviously, the remove_piece() and put_piece() functions also remove and put the piece, and they keep other incremental scores next to the material, such as as the incrementally updated PSQT's. That code has been omitted here for simplicity's sake.

With this implementation, the engine knows the white and black piece value count throughout the entire game, and the evaluation function only has to do one thing to use that as a basis:

pub fn evaluate_position(board: &Board) -> i16 {
    // ...

    let w_material = board.game_state.material[Sides::WHITE] as i16;
    let b_material = board.game_state.material[Sides::BLACK] as i16;

    // Base evaluation, by counting material.
    let mut value = w_material - b_material;

    // ... other evaluation terms here ---

    // Return evaluation value.

As you can see, the re-counting of the piece value from scratch has been reduced to just getting the white and black values from the board and then subtracting them.

This exact same technique will also be used to implement the PSQT's incrementally, which will be the next chapter. It is exactly the same, only there are 6 arrays instead of 2 (one for each piece type instead of each side), and 64 integers per array instead of 6 (one for each square instead of for each piece type).

On to the PSQT's, which are one of the most important terms of most chess engines, because they function as the basis of the positional knowledge.